I apologize in advance to Return of Kings readers with sensitive stomachs. Ironically, this is probably true from the perspective of feminists, most of whom are the sort of women who have absolutely no reason to fear male sexual desire. Andrea Dworkin pictured above claims to have been raped at one point in her life.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Interpersonal violence whether it is sexual or nonsexual, remains a major problem in large parts of the world. Sexual violence against children and women brings with it long-term sequelae, both psychiatrically and socially.
Apart from sexual gratification itself, sexual violence against women is often a result of unequal power equations both real and perceived between men and women and is also strongly influenced by cultural factors and values.
Within sociocentric and ego-centric cultures, the roles and representations of genders, and attitudes toward sexual violence differ.
Cultures which are described as feminist, provide equal power to both men and women. Sexual violence is likely to occur more commonly in cultures that foster beliefs of perceived male superiority and social and cultural inferiority of women.
Although culture is an important factor to understand sexual violence in its entirety, we need to look at, as well as beyond cultural structures, their strengths and weaknesses. Sexual violence is a profoundly negative and traumatic life event with widespread psychological and sociological effects on the victim irrespective of their gender.
It is likely that the fear of sexual violence in women will restrict their freedom and occupational opportunities and affect their long-term psychological well-being.
Sexual violence is rarely discussed within professional circles partly because of ignorance and partly due to inexperience in asking serious personal sexual questions as well as associated social stigma and shame for the victim and those related to the victim. It is both a health and a social concern with patriarchal, misogynist, and gender-shaming undertones.
Although there are different forms of sexual violence for example, male-male sexual violence, male-transgender sexual violencewe focus on the male-female sexual violence in this paper. Culture determines definitions and descriptions of normality and psychopathology. Culture plays an important role in how certain populations and societies view, perceive, and process sexual acts as well as sexual violence.
It, thus, amounts to sexual coercion and is considered illegal. However, the entire issue is sanctioned by personal laws defined by individuals who partake in such marriages[ 8 ] as condoned by Khap Panchayats who decide on marriage partners in certain parts of North India.
Similarly, sexual violence is considered legitimate by young men in South Africa who also believe that mental health is negatively affected by lack of sex. Higher rates of sexual violence are expected to be more prevalent in cultures that encourage objectification of women, thus making them appear inferior to men.
It has been postulated that the rates of unreported sexual offences are higher in some Asian cultures where virginity is highly valued and a woman's modesty is of utmost importance that gives her family the much required respect.
A sex ratio of in represents a male population of about According to the National Crime Records Bureau, the number of registered rape cases in India increased by This may lead to sexual jealousy and frustration among men contributing to sexual violence.
This hypothesis may, thus, not explain the rise in cases of child sexual abuse where there is no question of fidelity. It is, of course, entirely possible that this rise is likely with better and accurate reporting. A paradoxical hypothesis by Guttentag and Secord[ 19 ] argues that a high sex ratio with fewer women compared to men raises the value that men give to women thus reducing the chances of him resorting to intimate partner violence including sexual violence.
In addition to violence, the incident of sexual violence involves elements of control, power, domination, and humiliation.Back to issue 2. International Socialist Review Issue 2, Fall Engels and the Origin of Women's Oppression.
by Sharon Smith Sharon Smith is a regular columnist for Socialist Worker and the author of a forthcoming book on Marxism and women’s liberation, to be published by the Center for Economic Research and Social Change.
Everyone is familiar with the behavior of a group of young girls or teens who, giggling or even shrieking, are excited about clothes, make-up, hair, ribbons, jewelry, music, boys, nails, pink things, or other characteristically feminine diversions. This is "girly" behavior; and traditional feminism is about as sympathetic to it as would be a Marine drill sergeant.
The Indian society is at present witnessing a shift from being male-dominating to being gender equal; it is thus possible that the recent increase in the number of sexual violence cases in India is a result of the male backlash for the growing gender equality.
Feminists want to maximize the number of men who get charged with rape.
Feminists don’t care about actual rape victims. But they do hate men enough that they want to use rape as a political weapon against them, even if it means encouraging high-risk behaviour among college-aged caninariojana.com their eyes, one girl’s unpleasant night is worth it, to see a dastardly patriarch spend a decade in prison.
Two-Spirit (also two spirit or, occasionally, twospirited) is a modern, pan-Indian, umbrella term used by some indigenous North Americans to describe certain people in their communities who fulfill a traditional third-gender (or other gender-variant) ceremonial role in their cultures.
While most people mistakenly associate the term with "LGBT Native", the term and identity of two-spirit "does. Reasoning about rape and rape culture is also influenced by gender and heterosexuality norms, and therefore is also changing through time and place.
For example, in South Africa the overriding "war culture", which emphasized masculinity and violence, led to a culture in which rape was normalized.