Increasing efforts are being witnessed toward the development of advanced products.
Aquaculture can, in theory, be a beneficial way of sustainably harvesting fish—but only if done correctly. This paper will provide a background of scientific analysis as to how and why antibiotics are used and detail the problems associated with excessive use, including antibiotic resistance, residues found in human food and accumulation of antibiotics in the environment.
Veronica Li Afsaneh L. Mortazavi University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA This paper will focus on the problems associated with the use of prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotics used in aquaculture internationally. Current use and An analysis of the antibiotics of antibiotics in differing nations will be analyzed, with an emphasis on the countries of Norway and Chile.
Norway has proven to be a successful model by decreasing antibiotic usage drastically while still maintaining plentiful yields, as opposed to Chile, a nation that uses an abundance of antibiotics. Alternative approaches will be explored, such as vaccination to prevent disease outbreaks and the use of probiotics and bacteriophages.
Finally, proposed policy recommendations and solutions will be examined. Introduction and Background on Aquaculture Practices Aquaculture is defined as the farming of fish that intensify production for human consumption under controlled conditions, including breeding, containment, feed and medications.
Aquaculture can produce fish that have higher levels of natural and synthetic toxins, such as pesticides and persistent organic pollutants.
Antibiotic abuse is a known problem and there are ways to prevent and solve this issue. Aquaculture is growing in prominence as an alternative way of obtaining seafood. Production is currently increasing 9. The increase in efficient aquaculture starting in the s was driven by the newfound ability to control for disease with improved pen water quality, more nutritious feeds and genetic manipulation to aid selective breeding.
In countries such as Chile, China and several Asian-Pacific nations, there is a lack of regulations as well as weak enforcement on how many and which specific antibiotics can be used.
Finally, proposed policy recommendations will be examined. In these countries, regulations are lax and antibiotic usage is abundant compared to countries such as the U. For these reasons, their immune system response is slower and prophylactics aid in the ability to keep the fish from attracting a variety of diseases.
High densities of fish, a lack of barriers to isolate infected fish from healthy ones and general unclean pens result in high rates of infections. Therapeutic antibiotics in all countries should only be issued sparingly, when appropriate, and should be monitored heavily by governmental oversight agencies.
For example, in the U. Geological Survey are examples of two of these agencies that aid in disease reduction. Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic resistance is the primary detrimental effect of administering prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotics to fish in aquaculture.
Owing to the presence of antibiotics in aquaculture, antibiotic resistance has risen and therefore may be a possible contributing factor of antibiotic resistance in human populations.
According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDCresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp have been traced back to antibiotic usage in animals.
Results showed that bacteria showed some level of resistance to 18 of the 19 antibiotics. Because no antibiotics are officially listed in Australia, it would be incorrect to state that the resistance is due directly to antibiotic use. Yet numerous studies conducted in countries where antibiotics are known to be used have data very similar to the data found in this study; thus, it can be concluded that in aquaculture species and environments, antibiotic resistance is fairly common.
In many developed countries, prophylactic use has been banned and only limited therapeutic use is allowed.
One such study showed populations of bacteria resistant to tetracycline, quinolone and penicillin in the sediments around its fish farms. Antibiotic Residues Antibiotic residues from the excessive use of antibiotics in aquaculture can accumulate in the tissues of farmed fish and shellfish, thus causing possible adverse health effects in humans.
For instance, individuals who are very sensitive to certain antibiotics can have allergic reactions from trace residues and efficient diagnosis of what the patient was allergic to may be hindered by a lack of knowledge of what antibiotic was ingested or even which food triggered the allergic reaction.
Workers in aquaculture facilities in Thailand and the Philippines reported sometimes administering prophylactic antibiotics daily. For example, a study demonstrated that no residues were found on shrimp tissues after 25 days of withdrawal of using oxytetracycline. Although the chance of direct toxicity from consuming antibiotic fed fish is very low, chloramphenicol is an exception to this rule; studies have illustrated that this particular chemical leaves direct residual traces in human food and is highly toxic.
Since even trace residues can be associated with bone marrow depression and can induce a fatal form of human aplastic anemia, a ban on use in animals used for food consumption was instituted in the E.
Similarly to chloramphenicol, nitrofurans are another popular broad-spectrum group of antimicrobials.Industry Insights. The antibiotics market was valued at USD billion in and is expected to witness a CAGR of % over the forecast period. Increasing efforts are being witnessed toward the development of advanced products.
Antibiotics Market analysis offers latest trends, growth factors, top players, value/supply chain, industry competitiveness, antibiotics market size, share and forecast ().
For the studies in the secondary analysis, a similar stratified meta-analysis measured the risk associated with each antibiotic type compared to penicillin exposure.
We assessed the heterogeneity of study results by use of the τ 2, Q (18), and I 2 statistics (23). Analysis of antibiotics in fish samples veterinary medicine and animal husbandry, particularly for treatment of bacterial infections or for prophylaxis [ 36, 37 ].
Confirmation of identity during residue analysis of antibiotics in animal food products for human consumption is the most important application of LC–MS in the analysis of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance remains a pressing global public health problem. This second report on antibiotic use in the United States highlights encouraging progress made over the past year in the collection and availability of data for both human health care and animal agriculture settings.