Titchener Functionalism Attempts to understand why animals and humans have developed the particular psychological aspects that they currently possess William James Psychodynamic Focuses on the role of our unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories and our early childhood experiences in determining behavior Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Erik Erickson Behaviorism Based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore that psychologists should limit their attention to the study of behavior itself John B. Skinner Cognitive The study of mental processes, including perception, thinking, memory, and judgments Hermann Ebbinghaus, Sir Frederic Bartlett, Jean Piaget Social-cultural The study of how the social situations and the cultures in which people find themselves influence thinking and behavior Fritz Heider, Leon Festinger, Stanley Schachter Figure 1. Calkins made significant contributions to the study of memory and the self-concept.
Stanley Hall, a student of Wilhelm Wundt, establishes first U. Stanley Hall at Johns Hopkins University. Jastrow later becomes professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin and serves as president of the American Psychological Association in He later establishes two key journals in the field: Psychoanalysis The founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, introduces the term in a scholarly paper.
Freud's psychoanalytic approach asserts that people are motivated by powerful, unconscious drives and conflicts.
He develops an influential therapy based on this assertion, using free association and dream analysis.
Titchener, a leading proponent of structuralism, publishes his Outline of Psychology. Structuralism is the view that all mental experience can be understood as a combination of simple elements or events.
This approach focuses on the contents of the mind, contrasting with functionalism. First psychology clinic After heading a laboratory at University of Pennsylvania, Lightner Witmer opens world's first psychological clinic to patients, shifting his focus from experimental work to practical application of his findings.
Structuralism, an approach which seeks to identify the basic elements of consciousness, fades after Titchener's death in Later researchers refine this work into the concept of intelligence quotient; IQ, mental age over physical age.
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From their beginning, such tests' accuracy and fairness are challenged. Calling for more humane treatment of patients and better education about mental illness for the general population, the book inspires the mental hygiene movement in the United States.
At the symposium, Freud gives his only speech in the United States. Watson publishes "Psychology as Behavior," launching behaviorism. In contrast to psychoanalysis, behaviorism focuses on observable and measurable behavior. Soon after, such tests are used in all U.
Stanley Hall at Clark University. Sumner later serves as chair of the Howard University psychology department. They take a compassionate approach to the treatment of mental illness, emphasizing both psychological and psychiatric disciplines.He is a Fellow of APA's Division 1 (Society for General Psychology), 2 (Society for the Teaching of Psychology), 6 (Behavioral Neuroscience and Comparative Psychology), and 26 (History of Psychology); of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; of the American Psychological Society; and of the Animal Behavior Society (ABS).
German scientist, considered the 'Father of Psychology', pioneered the theory of Structuralism. He was the first to use psychologist to open a lab for his experimental studies.
Prices for Introduction History Psychology by Hergenhahn 8th Edition. An interdisciplinary field emphasizing brain activity as information processing; involves cognitive psychology, neurology, biology, computer science, linguistics, and specialists from other fields who are interested in the connection .
First psychology laboratory Nazi persecution of psychologists Truman signs the National Mental Health Act, providing generous funding for psychiatric education and research for the first time in U.S.
Study An Introduction to the History of Psychology discussion and chapter questions and find An Introduction to the History of Psychology study guide questions and answers. Introduction to Psychology History and Science Quiz _____ 1. Emily Rosa, the youngest researcher to have an article published in The Journal of the American Medical. An interdisciplinary field emphasizing brain activity as information processing; involves cognitive psychology, neurology, biology, computer science, linguistics, and specialists from other fields who are interested in the connection .
This act leads to the creation in of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Conceptions of counseling psychology: --The counseling psychologist: a definition in / Jean-Pierre Jordaan [and others] --Counseling psychology, the psychoeducator model and the future: a definition in / Allen E.