A fun way to quickly produce visual concepts is to apply action verbs to a basic idea.
The guidelines writing committee reviewed recent trial data and other clinical information in the revision process for the update. The guidelines described four stages i. Patients in stages A and B do not have heart failure, but have risk factors that predispose them toward the development of heart failure.
Patients in stage D have refractory heart failure and may be eligible for specialized, advanced treatments e. Updated Recommendations Updates to the guidelines are included in sections about the evaluation of patients presenting with heart failure; patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction LVEF ; patients with refractory end-stage heart failure; and the treatment of special population groups e.
The updated guidelines also contain a new section with recommendations about heart failure in the hospitalized patient.
Evaluation of Heart Failure Updates to the section on the evaluation of patients presenting with heart failure were made to clarify the role of functional assessment beyond the New York Heart Association NYHA classification, and to expand on the use of brain natriuretic peptide BNP and N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide NT-proBNP testing for patient evaluation.
According to the update, patients with left ventricular dysfunction or heart failure generally present in one of three ways: Measurement of natriuretic peptides i. Measurement of natriuretic peptides can be useful in risk stratification.
A The guidelines also recommended measurement of BNP for evaluating patients who present in the urgent care setting with possible heart failure; the update expanded this recommendation to include the measurement of NTproBNP. The level of evidence remained the same for this recommendation.
The update warns that, although elevated natriuretic peptide levels may help confirm a suspected diagnosis of heart failure, the results of this testing alone should not be used to confirm or exclude a heart failure diagnosis.
A For this recommendation, the update modified the text in the guidelines by eliminating mention of specific agents tested. Maximal exercise testing with or without measurement of respiratory gas exchange is reasonable to facilitate prescription of an appropriate exercise program for patients presenting with heart failure.
Indian Journal of Clinical Practice, Vol. At high risk of heart failure, but without structural heart disease or symptoms of heart failure Includes patients with: Using cardiotoxins With a family history of cardiomyopathy Therapy Goals: Control metabolic syndrome Discourage alcohol intake and illicit drug use Encourage regular exercise Encourage smoking cessation Treat hypertension Treat lipid disorders Drugs: Structural heart disease but without signs or symptoms of heart failure Includes patients with: Asymptomatic valvular disease Left ventricular remodeling, including left ventricular hypertrophy and low ejection fraction Previous myocardial infarction Therapy Goals: All measures under stage A Drugs: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators Development of symptoms of heart failure Heart failure Stage C: Structural heart disease, with previous or current symptoms of heart failure Includes patients with: Known structural heart disease and Shortness of breath and fatigue, reduced exercise tolerance Therapy Goals: Drugs in selected patients: Diuretics for fluid retention Biventricular pacing Implantable cardioverterdefibrillators Refractory symptoms of heart failure at rest Stage D: Refractory heart failure requiring specialized interventions Includes patients who have marked symptoms at rest despite maximal medical therapy e.
Compassionate end-of-life care, hospice Extraordinary measures e. Algorithm of the stages in the development of heart failure, with recommended therapy for patients by stage.
Implantable cardioverterdefibrillator therapy is recommended for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death to reduce total mortality in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy or ischemic heart disease at least 40 days after myocardial infarction MI ; an LVEF of 35 percent or less; and NYHA functional class II or III symptoms while receiving chronic optimal medical therapy, and who have reasonable expectation of survival with a good functional status for longer than one year.
It replaces recommendations from the guidelines on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy for patients with ischemic heart disease at least 40 days after MI Level of Evidence: A or nonischemic cardiomyopathy Level of Evidence: In two of the major trials reviewed by the guidelines committee, no survival benefit was observed from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy until after the first year of recovery from an acute coronary event.
Patients with heart failure and low ejection fraction are typically older than 70 years, although this patient population was not well represented in the trials. Physicians should consider common comorbidities in older adults e.
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy is not warranted in patients with refractory heart failure stage D or in those with concomitant diseases that would shorten their life expectancy independent of heart failure. Before implantation, physicians should inform patients of the effectiveness, safety, and mortality risks of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy; of the morbidity associated with an implantable cardioverterdefibrillator shock; and that the therapy does not improve clinical function or delay progression of heart failure.
A The recommendation was updated to clarify that cardiac resynchronization therapy may be indicated for patients with or without an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Evidence shows that cardiac resynchronization therapy can improve symptoms, exercise capacity, quality of life, LVEF, and survival; it can also decrease hospitalizations in patients with persistently symptomatic heart failure receiving optimal medical therapy who have cardiac dyssynchrony.Ellen Lupton - Pensar Com Tipos.
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