Economic and Financial Impacts of Natural Disasters:
Prior research has primarily focused on the impact of single, large disaster events but very little is known about how small and moderate disasters, which are more typical, affect population health.
In this paper, we present one of the first investigations of the impact of small and moderate disasters on childhood morbidity, physical growth, and immunizations by combining household data on over 80, children from three waves of the Indian National Family and Health Survey with an international database of natural disasters EM-DAT.
Exposure to a disaster in the past year reduces height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores by 0. Most notably, the adverse effects on growth outcomes are much smaller among boys, infants, and families with more socioeconomic resources. India, natural disasters, child health, immunization, stunting, underweight Introduction Natural disasters are a common occurrence in developing countries, and there is growing concern that they may become more frequent due to climate change Van Aalst, Disasters result in significant economic damage and can cause large-scale death.
Innatural disasters were reported worldwide, killing over 10, people and causing damages over 41 billion USD Vos et al. In addition to their immediate effects on health and mortality, disasters can have indirect, long-term, population health effects through various mechanisms, including income shocks to households and restricted access to health care.
In particular, exposure to disasters during critical growth phases, such as childhood, could permanently alter health trajectories by interrupting important health investments.
For example, disasters may prevent children from receiving timely immunizations or may induce households to divert resources away from children. While understanding the effects of large disaster events is important, nations are more frequently affected by smaller-scale disasters, sometimes repeatedly.
In fact, large disasters typically attract greater international aid and resources to the affected regions Stroemberg,potentially mitigating some adverse effects. In contrast, smaller disasters often do not receive as wide attention and may lead to significant detrimental effects on child health and access to health care, even if immediate effects on mortality may be small.
Consequently, impacts of large-scale disaster events may not be generalizable to the majority of disasters, particularly for developing countries.
Only one recent study has examined the impact of several different natural disasters on child health using data from Guatemala. The focus on India is useful for several reasons. First, with nearly 1. The UN estimates that 2. Second, the country is annually struck by several natural disasters of varying intensity and types.
From tothe period of time spanning our data, there were natural disasters reported in India that led to over 96, fatalities and affected several million people.
This includes some very large disasters, such as the Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami over 16, killedthe Orissa cyclone nearly 10, killedand floods in Gujarat and Maharashtra in affecting over 20M people.
However, a majority of these disasters did not result in large fatalities, and there has been no systematic examination of whether exposure to these disasters affected morbidity, nutrition, and health investments in childhood.
This effort represents the first time that the EM-DAT data have been linked to micro-level household survey data, enabling a comprehensive assessment of the impact of natural disasters and not just single disaster events.
By destroying, damaging, or straining health infrastructure, natural disasters might affect access to health care.
Increased search or travel costs following health infrastructure destruction increases the marginal cost of health investments.Natural Disasters and Birds How Natural Disasters Affect Wild Birds.
By Melissa Mayntz. Updated 04/04/ Pin The Effects of Natural Disasters on Birds. Migration Disruption: Natural disasters can devastate birds if the event interferes with migration. A flight of hundreds or thousands of miles is already hazardous, and storms that.
Another primary reason for illegal immigration can be prompted by a natural disaster like an earthquake, tsunami or hurricane. In these instances, a person will lose their home and all of their belongings in the tragic event at hand. Economic and financial impacts Major natural disasters can and do have severe negative short-run economic impacts.
Disasters also appear to have adverse longer-term consequences for economic growth, development and poverty reduction. Economic and Financial Impacts of Natural Disasters: an Assessment of Their Effects and Options for.
Effects of Natural Disaters on Migration Essay MODULE: DEMOGRAPHY, MIGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT LECTURER poverty and food insecurity thereby in an attempt to secure basic needs humans are forced to migrate thus forced migration due to natural disasters.
Prior research examining the effects of natural disasters on children’s health generally focuses on singular large disaster events.
For example, (Column 4) to limit bias due to migration; exclusion of recent migrants does not change results.
Table 6. Robustness Checks. Causes and Effects on migration Essay. The Causes and Effects of Migration. Migration has always been a part of the history of humankind. Thousands of years ago, the first group of people in Africa started to migrate around the world.