Laura Quinney, Brandeis University, Prof.
The European and Japanese empires were shattered and communist parties played a leading role in many independence movements.
A Marxist—Leninist government was also created under Marshal Tito in Yugoslaviabut Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform which had replaced the Comintern and Titoism was branded " deviationist ".
On the previous day, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers — including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes — to Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
That evening at 7: The week before the union's formal dissolution, eleven republics signed the Alma-Ata Protocol formally establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States and declaring that the Soviet Union had ceased to exist. List of anti-capitalist and communist parties with national parliamentary representation Countries of the world now red or previously orange having nominally Marxist—Leninist governments At present, states controlled by Marxist—Leninist parties under a single-party system include the People's Republic of ChinaCubaLaos and Vietnam.
North Korea currently refers to its leading ideology as Juchewhich is portrayed as a development of Marxism—Leninism. Communist parties, or their descendant parties, remain politically important in a number of other countries.
In Nepalcommunists hold a majority in the parliament. The People's Republic of China has reassessed many aspects of the Maoist legacy and along with Laos, Vietnam and to a lesser degree Cuba has decentralized state control of the economy in order to stimulate growth.
In these countries, the land is a universal public monopoly administered by the state, as are natural resources and vital industries and services.
The public sector is the dominant sector in these economies and the state plays a central role in coordinating economic development.
Marxist communism Marxism A monument dedicated to Karl Marx left and Friedrich Engels right in Shanghai, China Marxismfirst developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the mids, has been the foremost ideology of the communist movement. Marxism considers itself to be the embodiment of scientific socialismand rather than model an "ideal society" based on intellectuals' design, it is a non-idealist attempt at the understanding of society and history through an analysis based in real life.
Marxism does not see communism as a "state of affairs" to be established, but rather as the expression of a real movement, with parameters which are derived completely from real life and not based on any intelligent design. At the root of Marxism is the materialist conception of historyknown as historical materialism for short.
It holds that the key characteristic of economic systems through history has been the mode of production and that the change between modes of production has been triggered by class struggle.
According to this analysis, the Industrial Revolution ushered the world into a new mode of production: Before capitalism, certain working classes had ownership of instruments utilized in production, but because machinery was much more efficient this property became worthless and the mass majority of workers could only survive by selling their labor, working through making use of someone else's machinery and therefore making someone else profit.
Thus with capitalism the world was divided between two major classes: Historical materialism goes on and says: This was another of the keys behind the consolidation of capitalism as the new mode of production, which is the final expression of class and property relations and also has led into a massive expansion of production.
It is therefore only in capitalism that private property in itself can be abolished. In between capitalism and communism there is the dictatorship of the proletariata democratic state where the whole of the public authority is elected and recallable under the basis of universal suffrage.
An important concept in Marxism is socialization vs. Nationalization is merely state ownership of property, whereas socialization is actual control and management of property by society.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
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