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Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis radiometrically dated to approximately 3.
A major climatic recession occurred, lessening the heavy and persistent rains in Central and Eastern Africa. Since this time, dry conditions have prevailed in Eastern Africa and, increasingly during the last years, in Ethiopia. The domestication of cattle in Africa preceded agriculture and seems to have existed alongside hunter-gatherer cultures.
It is speculated that by BC, cattle were domesticated in North Africa. Around BC, the Saharan climate started to become drier at an exceedingly fast pace. This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and helped to cause migrations of farming communities to the more tropical climate of West Africa.
Copper objects from EgyptNorth Africa, Nubia, and Ethiopia dating from around BC have been excavated in West Africa, suggesting that Trans-Saharan trade networks had been established by this date.
At about BC, the historical record opens in Northern Africa with the rise of literacy in the Pharaonic civilization of Ancient Egypt. He founded Alexandria in Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic dynasty after his death.
Roman settlement occurred in modern Tunisia and elsewhere along the coast. Syro-Greek missionarieswho arrived by way of the Red Sea, were responsible for this theological development. In a short while, the local Berber elite had been integrated into Muslim Arab tribes.
Islamic North Africa had become diverse, and a hub for mystics, scholars, jurists, and philosophers. During the above-mentioned period, Islam spread to sub-Saharan Africa, mainly through trade routes and migration.
These included small family groups of hunter-gatherers such as the San people of southern Africa; larger, more structured groups such as the family clan groupings of the Bantu-speaking peoples of central, southern, and eastern Africa; heavily structured clan groups in the Horn of Africa ; the large Sahelian kingdoms ; and autonomous city-states and kingdoms such as those of the Akan ; EdoYorubaand Igbo people in West Africa ; and the Swahili coastal trading towns of Southeast Africa.
By the ninth century AD, a string of dynastic states, including the earliest Hausa states, stretched across the sub-Saharan savannah from the western regions to central Sudan.
Ghana declined in the eleventh century, but was succeeded by the Mali Empire which consolidated much of western Sudan in the thirteenth century.
Kanem accepted Islam in the eleventh century. In the forested regions of the West African coast, independent kingdoms grew with little influence from the Muslim north. The Kingdom of Nri was established around the ninth century and was one of the first. It is also one of the oldest kingdoms in present-day Nigeria and was ruled by the Eze Nri.
The Nri kingdom is famous for its elaborate bronzesfound at the town of Igbo-Ukwu. The bronzes have been dated from as far back as the ninth century. Ife was noted as a major religious and cultural centre in West Africa, and for its unique naturalistic tradition of bronze sculpture.
The Ife model of government was adapted at the Oyo Empirewhere its obas or kings, called the Alaafins of Oyo, once controlled a large number of other Yoruba and non-Yoruba city-states and kingdoms; the Fon Kingdom of Dahomey was one of the non-Yoruba domains under Oyo control.
The Almoravids were a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of northwestern Africa and the Iberian peninsula during the eleventh century.
Their migration resulted in the fusion of the Arabs and Berbers, where the locals were Arabized and Arab culture absorbed elements of the local culture, under the unifying framework of Islam. Sonni Ali seized Timbuktu in and Jenne inbuilding his regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants.
His successor Askia Mohammad I — made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought to Gao Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili d. Until the fifteenth century, these small states were on the periphery of the major Sudanic empires of the era, paying tribute to Songhai to the west and Kanem-Borno to the east.
The Ottomans controlled much of Northern Africa between the 14th and 19th centuries, and had vassal arrangements with a number of Saharan states. Mansa Musa ruled the Mali Empire in the 14th century. Between the 15th and the 19th centuries, the Atlantic slave trade took an estimated 7—12 million slaves to the New World.
Between andthe British West Africa Squadron seized approximately 1, slave ships and freedAfricans who were aboard.
Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers.How to Write about Africa Binyavanga Wainaina. African is a fat man who steals and works in the visa office, refusing to give work permits to qualified Westerners who really care about Africa.
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