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Relative Clauses Introduction One of the features of written academic English that gives it its greater complexity is longer sentences, with more frequent use of subordinate clauses.
A clause is part of a sentence and a subordinate clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb that cannot stand alone as a sentence. Relative clauses, both defining and non-defining, are a kind of subordinate clause. Defining ones tell us which thing or person is being referred to, or what kind of thing or person the writer or speaker means.
Non-defining ones just add extra, non-essential information about the person or thing being referred to. This Learning Object will provide you with the rules about their use and show you ways that they can sometimes be shortened or replaced by noun phrases to create a more concise style.
Omitting the relative pronoun? The rules about using commas, using the relative pronoun "that" and omission of the relative pronoun are different with the two kinds of relative clauses: By doing these exercises, it is hoped that you will gain a greater understanding of the difference between the two kinds of relative clause and then will understand which rules to follow when you are writing your essays.
Instruction Put a tick in the box if the sentences below are defining relative clauses and leave the box empty if they are non-defining relative clauses. You may wish to attempt this exercise by referring to the grammatical knowledge you have aready acquired. Alternatively, you may like to follow this link Relative Clauses Grammar Rules to refresh your memory of the differences before you do the exercises.
The meeting, which was attended by all the shareholders, came to a unanimous decision. The accused, who was on trial for his first offence, was defended by a lawyer with an excellent reputation.
The drug that was used in the trialling throughout the United States was found to be the most effective. The revision, which I had done the night before, was useless when I was faced with questions on such unusual topics.
The experiment that the researchers conducted in the laboratory had very inconclusive results. Sociology would seem to be saying that those who have wealth and do well, do so at the expense of the poor.
The ethos of professionalism with which police authorities are imbued has led to a recognition that social research can bring valuable results. Unlike Article 35, which deals with third party States and third party organisations together, Article 36 separates the two.
The functional nodules of the brain may be bigger than the individual areas of the cortex that are the conventional units of analysis. Nietzsche was soon to substitute a new opposition whose polar extremes were occupied by visual art and music. The problem was considered idiopathic in patients in whom no underlying condition could be detected.
It is later in their careers, when seeking promotion, that direct and indirect discrimination becomes more visible.
Show feedback Hide feedback The sentences containing non-defining relative clauses are numbers: The non-defining relative clause is separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.
Now in its fourth edition, Writing Academic English, by Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue, is the essential writing text to prepare high-intermediate and advanced college or college-bound English language learners for academic success. The noun "evolution" is preferred to the verb "evolve" and the "wh" clause. Another example is: Premack used a set of plastic chips to teach a chimpanzee named Sarah the meaning of a set of symbols. Learn Longman Academic Writing Hogue with free interactive flashcards. Choose from 67 different sets of Longman Academic Writing Hogue flashcards on Quizlet. Log in Sign up. Subordinators for Adjective & Noun Clauses (Longman Academic Writing 4) to refer to people.
The clauses could be removed from the sentences and they would still make sense. The clause adds extra, non-essential information and the effect is the same as if the clause was separated from the rest of the sentence by brackets.
For example, the first sentence could be rewritten as: The meeting which was attended by all the shareholders came to a unanimous decision. The sentences containing defining relative clauses are numbers: In these sentences the extra information is essential information, as it answers the question: In the following defining relative clauses, put a tick if the relative pronoun 'that', 'who' which' etc.
If it cannot be omitted, leave the box empty. Remember it is only possible to omit the relative pronoun if it is the object of a defining relative clause.
Another system is the complaints procedure which members of the public can initiate against police officers.
The oil crisis alone could not have destroyed the confidence that capitalists felt during the golden years. We also need to engage with those theories which deconstruct the distinction between the "individual" and the "social". The explanation which you gave for your absence at the board meeting was unacceptable.Building Clauses.
A clause is a collection of grammatically-related words including a predicate and a subject (though sometimes the subject is implied).
A collection of grammatically-related words without a subject or without a predicate is called a phrase. In fact, many noun clauses are indirect questions: noun academic writing.
What is a Clause? Definition And Types With Examples. Tweet. Pin it. The Noun Clause. business writing, creative writing and all sorts of academic, essays, dissertation, research papers and proposals. You can learn your way through technical tools and resources for writing, editing and publishing eBooks via PDF, MS Office and Pages.
In academic writing, you will need to write more complex sentences which use main and dependent clauses and phrases. The good news is that, although it sounds daunting, this is probably what you are used to doing everyday!
Academic Writing- How to Improve Your Sentences What is a Sentence A sentence is a group of words which expresses a complete thought A sentence must contain at least a subject (the person or thing doing the action or being described) and a verb (doing word). Relative clauses 8 Paragraphing 9 Extended Writing Task (Task or ) 11 Study Notes on clauses and noun phrases 65 Compressing noun phrases 68 Grammar for Academic Writing provides a selective overview of .
Phrases and Clauses Introduction.
The purpose of this section is not to provide a complete and detailed discussion of every kind of phrase and clause in the English language.