Post-Easter Data and Discussion In modern discussions about the teachings and history of the New Testament, the issue of pseudonymity i. This term refers to the position of some NT scholars that the stated authors of some of the NT epistles are not the actual authors of those documents--that someone other than Paul wrote an epistle which claims it was written by Paul, or that someone other than Peter wrote an epistle which claims it was written by Peter. The term 'pseudepigraphy' lower case p is somewhat related: The term 'Pseudepigraphy' capital P --a much 'looser term'-- refers to a collection of books not included in the canons of the Hebrew or Christian bibles.
Etymology[ edit ] Orientalism refers to the Orientin reference and opposition to the Occident ; the East and the West, respectively. The eastern part of the world; the sky whence comes the sun; the east; the rising sun, etc. In the " Monk's Tale "Geoffrey Chaucer wrote: Edward Said said that Orientalism "enables the political, economic, cultural and social domination of the West, not just during colonial times, but also in the present.
In that time, artists and scholars were described as Orientalists, especially in France, where the dismissive use of the term "Orientalist" was made popular by the art critic Jules-Antoine Castagnary. Art historians tend to identify two broad types of Orientalist artist: Among such scholars were British officials of the East India Companywho said that the Arab culturethe culture of Indiaand the Islamic cultures should be studied as equal to the cultures of Europe.
British imperial strategy in India favored Orientalism as a technique for developing good relations with the natives—until the s, when the influence of "anglicists" such as Thomas Babington Macaulay and John Stuart Mill led to the promotion of Anglocentric education. Critical studies[ edit ] In the book Orientalismthe cultural critic Edward Said redefined the term Orientalism to describe a pervasive Western tradition — academic and artistic — of prejudiced outsider-interpretations of the Eastern world, which was shaped by the cultural attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Said criticised contemporary scholars who perpetuated the tradition of outsider-interpretation of Arabo -Islamic cultures, especially Bernard Lewis and Fouad Ajami. In that vein, the art historian Linda Nochlin applied Said's methods of critical analysis to art, "with uneven results".
The Orient is a stage on which the whole East is confined" in order to make the Eastern world "less fearsome to the West";  that the developing world, primarily the West, is the cause of colonialism.
A Very Short IntroductionStephen Howe agreed with Said that Western nations and their empires were created by the exploitation of underdeveloped countries, by the extraction of wealth and labour from one country to another country.
Orientalism in early modern France The Moresque style of Renaissance ornament is a European adaptation of the Islamic arabesque that began in the late 15th century and was to be used in some types of work, such as bookbindinguntil almost the present day. Early architectural use of motifs lifted from the Indian subcontinent is known as Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture.
The style gained momentum in the west with the publication of views of India by William Hodgesand William and Thomas Daniell from about Examples of "Hindoo" architecture are Sezincote House c. Turqueriewhich began as early as the late 15th century, continued until at least the 18th century, and included both the use of "Turkish" styles in the decorative arts, the adoption of Turkish costume at times, and interest in art depicting the Ottoman Empire itself.
Venice, the traditional trading partner of the Ottomans, was the earliest centre, with France becoming more prominent in the 18th century. Chinoiserie is the catch-all term for the fashion for Chinese themes in decoration in Western Europe, beginning in the late 17th century and peaking in waves, especially Rococo Chinoiserie, c.
From the Renaissance to the 18th century, Western designers attempted to imitate the technical sophistication of Chinese ceramics with only partial success. Early hints of Chinoiserie appeared in the 17th century in nations with active East India companies: Tin-glazed pottery made at Delft and other Dutch towns adopted genuine Ming -era blue and white porcelain from the early 17th century.
Early ceramic wares made at Meissen and other centers of true porcelain imitated Chinese shapes for dishes, vases and teawares see Chinese export porcelain.The Invention of Writing. The earliest form of writing was pictographs – symbols which represented objects – and served to aid in remembering such things as which parcels of grain had gone to which destination or how many sheep were needed for events like sacrifices in the temples.
These pictographs were impressed onto wet clay which. South Asian arts, the literary, performing, and visual arts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka..
Despite a history of ethnic, linguistic, and political fragmentation, the people of the Indian subcontinent are unified by a common cultural and ethical outlook; a wealth of ancient textual literature in Sanskrit, Prākrit, and regional languages is a major unifying factor.
We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. The core foundation of Hindu belief is that Vedas contain source of all knowledge – physical or metaphysical.
However in last odd years, this belief has come under scrutiny due to the advances that modern science claims to make. The Institute of East Asian Studies organizes and sponsors research and public service programs related to the history, cultures and contemporary affairs of East Asia, at the University of California, Berkeley.
The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other The invention of writing was not a one-time event but was a gradual process initiated by the appearance of The Sumerian archaic (pre-cuneiform) writing and the Egyptian hieroglyphs are generally considered the earliest true writing systems.